syn. P. acaulis (L.) Hill., P. grandiflora Lam., P. sylvestris Scope., P. vernalis Salisb., P. uniflora Gmail., P. hybrida cabinet – Section vernales Pax) – rhizome short, leaves oblong-obovate, when 6 cm long, podvinuté, gradually narrowed in short petiole, front rounded, irregular, obtusely dentate, wrinkled, on the face of Lysa, the reverse hairy; scape missing, individual flowers grow on 5-10 cm long, hairy stems from the axils of the bracts, calyx cylindrical, Crown sulfur yellow (drying turns green), at the mouth of the Orange, with orange spots, when 3,5 cm wide, tube longer than calyx, III – IV, Capsule shorter than calyx. Evropa až sev. Ukraine, Asia Minor, yourself. South, in rich moist soils on a lightly shaded areas, in sparse deciduous forests, shrubs and meadows. A distinction is several subspecies.
P. acaulis – syn. P. vulgaris, Europe, height 8 – 15 cm, umbels sits between the sheets, flowers pale sulfur-yellow with dark spots are wide open, bloom from III to IV. The cultural forms are grown white var. alba, yellow var. lutea, red var. sanguineum, modrofialová was. coerulea, var further from plnokvětých. full atrosanguinea, tmavě fialově-purpurová 'Arthur Dumoulin', citronově žlutá 'Cloth of Gold', pink-purple Croussei full, purple full platypetala, lila lilacina full, white lutea plena, pink rosea plena and more.
Primula elatior (L.) Hill. – prvosenka vyšší
syn. P. montana Opiz. P. brachycalyx Opiz – Section vernales Pax – leaves young podvinuté, wrinkled, na rubu šedozelené, ovate to ovate-oblong, rounded at the top, based abruptly narrowed in winged petioles, 3-6 cm long, after flowering extend, 1-2x zubaté; stvol 6-30 cm, with unilateral multifloral umbel with overhanging flowers, calyx narrowly cylindrical, Crown sulfur yellow (drying green), with orange spots, mouth orange, III-V; Capsule longer than calyx. Widespread throughout VAC. Europe, from already. Russia is already over. Anglii a Švédsko, in the mountains of Armenia, na Kavkaze, Urals, Altaji, v sev. Persi, on a damp and marshy meadows, in light forests from lowland to alpine levels. He is grateful, easy, Suitable for moist shaded habitats, even in lawns natural gardens. It has numerous subspecies.
P. elatior (P. truths our. elatior – homemade, s 30 cm tall umbels, dimensionally varied, IV-V. For gardens are significant cultural forms, which are designated P. elatior gigantea hybrida, flowers to 4 cm, white-yellow or red hues. P. elatior aurea grandiflora (poorly marketed as P. officinalis grandiflora) the zlatožlutá, fragrant, Pretty in beds in light soil in semi-shady habitats with good irrigation.
Primula veris L. – prvosenka Jarni, primrose
Section vernales Pax – (syn. P. officinalis (L.) Hill., P. odorata Gilib., P. coronary Salisb.) – rhizome short , Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, 6 cm long (in flower, later grow) , the rounded front, based on gradually or suddenly narrowed in winged petioles, wavy edge, irregularly scalloped; stvol 6-20 cm, umbel-sided, rich, fragrant flowers, overhanging, calyx campanulate to bloated, zelenožlutý, Crown yolk yellow, 1-2 cm wide, lem miskovitý, lobes based with orange spots, IV-V; ovoid capsule up 1/2 kalicha. Europe, Siberia, Asia, in wet meadows. Often grows wild in the grass. It is similar P. elatior, but tolerates more sun, It is more common in lowlands, flowers on 1-2 weeks later. It has several subspecies and many garden hybrids.
P. Julia Kusn
1 – Section vernales Pax – prvosenka kobercová, creates a more or less thick, 5-6 cm high carpets, leaves obovate to round, shiny, serrated, single flowers on short stalks grow from the axils of the bracts, crown deep violet to red, IV. Def Caucasus, on wet rocks and mountain forests. She likes heavier humus-rich moist soil and away from the sun. it is easy, grows well , generously and willingly blossoms and grows into a decorative carpet. It has many hybrids, placed under the collective name Juliao-hybrids, UK P. x juliana. Produces very few seeds but easy to reproduce by dividing.
2 – It has been introduced in 1911
3 – Caucasus, similar P. acaulis, creeping rhizome, kidney-shaped leaves, with long petioles, deep purple flowers with yellow esophagus, colors vary from lighter to darker, IV.
P. vulgaris (acaulis) He likes fresh soil, withstand sun and shade.
Hybrid cultivar and groups
Primula × pruhoniciana Zeman (P. × pruhonicensis)
Primula × pruhoniciana Zeman section vernales Pax – garden hybrid P. Julia × P. vulgaris, very grateful undemanding skalničkam richly often purple flowers and grows relatively quickly in nice carpet. In some audiences states as a synonym P. Julia.
P. × pruhonicensis (P. Julia × (P.elatior × P. vulgaris)) – This cross gives smaller hybrids more fine shape, usually with umbel flowers. The name comes from the village of Průhonice near Prague, where in years 1886 when 1937 founded by Count Ernst Silva Tarouca beautiful garden. Pink form is often incorrectly called P. vulgaris sibthorpii
CAREFUL oral – correctly pruhoniciana – to breed in the '20s 20 Mr Zeman century, inšpektor tender. company, Head of Dendrological Garden in Průhonice – it is P. Julia × P. vulgaris (elatior in fact not, Never have high stalks, always bezlodyžné types). In the same period, the same breeding Arends made a first hybrid called P. × helenae, pruhoniciana However, as reported earlier, Therefore, it is valid. Arends then the nobility below, used for outcrossing.
Product dendrologic garden – year 1925 P. × pruhoniciana referred to as New – hybrid P. Julia a P. acaulis caerulea.
Primula × polyanthus – Primula × variabilis
P. truths × vulgaris – known as polyanthus – Both hybrids are common in nature there, where both parents are growing side by side. The hybrids were bred centuries ago, in order to increase blooms and a wider color range from the blue and red to white and yellow.
Primula × juliana
P. Julia x P. elatior – varieties are less than P. × pruhonicensis, often with a single in May on stem, 'Wanda' It is an old and favorite of this group manifold.
– generativní – P. elatior a vulgaris – the collection of seeds ensured that, that seed nevyklepal wind. Sowing in the II-III at about 20 ° C, We cover seeds only lightly. After germination migrate to cooler areas. Older seed is the hardness of the seed coat to be treated as kaltkeimer. Plantlets punctures later on 8 cm pots or directly into the garden. 1 g seed P. vulgaris It contains about 900 semen, from 10 g seed wild P. elatior we get about 800 plant.
– vegetative – plnokvěté simple and varieties are propagated by division. each 2-3 years in March older plants removed from the soil, and divided into 2 when 10 oddělků, in which hrnkujeme 9 cm pots or directly on beds.
Very popular rock plant, easily grown in moist humus soils to move away from the sun. At higher temperatures primrose soon lose their ornamental value, time at room temperature are used in short, hardy primroses can be planted after flowering garden. P. vulgaris a P. elatior They are in flower and planted in window boxes or elsewhere outdoors.
na Záhony, on the rim and into the Alpini, mass in the bright undergrowth of trees in parks.
P. truths – Sheets previously used for salads, also P. vulgaris the salad vegetables, in 16. century in England and grew in large blooms were collected for disposal in a sugar solution to drink of sweet wine.
'Appleblossom' – seems, the original primula from Garryarde, která nese jméno 'Appleblossom', lost. Kinlough, Co., letra, Ireland.
'Cowichan Blue' – × polyanthus – medium sized flowers with a small eyelet. Pretty dark blue with purple stems; dark leaves suggest a P. × pruhonicensis. Florence Bellis bred in Oregon around 1960 (He is also the author of a series Barnhaven). height around 10 cm.
'Craddock White' – × pruhoniciana – creamy white, white flowers with a diameter of about 2,5 cm.
'Crescendo Blue' – × polyanthus – large-medium blue with leaves bledězelenými, commonly sold as F1 hybrid seed mixture.
'Enchantress' – × pruhoniciana – pink (on fotu), květy větší a masivnější než 'Guinevere', around 3,5 cm diameter.
'Duckyls Red' – × polyanthus – vyšlechtila Mrs. Hazel Taylor z Duclkyls, East Sussex. Habitem dost podobná 'Cowichans' rather dark leaves and small eyelet.
'Guinevere' – × pruhoniciana, syn. 'Garryard Guinevere', probably bred by Mrs. Johnson, Kinlough, Co., letra, Ireland. stalks into 15 cm, bronze leaves, flowers about 2-5 cm diameter. Seems, the original primula from Garryarde, která nese jméno 'Appleblossom', lost.
'Lady Greer' – × pruhoniciana – delicately pale yellow, with flowers around 2,5 cm diameter.
'McWatts Claret' – × pruhoniciana – unusually tan.
'Pacific Giants Mixed' – × polyanthus – known group of large-flowered hybrids in a wide range of colors. Zajímavější selekcí co do barev je 'Paradise' (also includes two-tone and half-full).
'Tawny Port' – × pruhoniciana – rich dark red, blossom 2 cm diameter, podobnÄ cv. 'Wanda'.
'Tomato Red' – × pruhoniciana – unique shade oranžověčervené, blossom 2-5 cm diameter.
'Wanda' – × pruhoniciana – One of the oldest hybrids, Flowers averaged around 2 cm.
– × juliana – 'Wanda' It is an old and favorite of this group manifold.
'Wanda hose-in-hose' – × pruhoniciana – plnokvětá 'Wanda' with another crown inside
– × juliana – 'Wanda' It is an old and favorite of this group manifold
1 – Zahr. Encyclopaedia N-Q
2 – Martin, Rix, Learly Perennials – I.
3 – Ernst Graf Silva Tarouca, Camillo Schneider: Our free-range perennials
4 – Cultural practice of free-range jewelry perennials – Alfred Fessler, Fritz Köhlein a kol.
The first prvosenkám were grown in the gardens prvosenka bezlodyžná, a prvosenka vyšší, other domestic species, which certainly needs no introduction, the prvosenka Jarni or cowslip. All three now enjoyed for hundreds of years and gave birth to hundreds of cultural forms and varieties. When was the beginning 20. century culture to put Caucasian prvosenka kobercová, almost escaped the attention of gardeners. Has been appreciated until around 1920, and the discovery of its first hybrids with primrose. The first to make the crossing inspector dendrologic company and leading garden in Pruhonice Mr. Zeman – Thus arose the famous and worldwide known Primula × pruhoniciana, whose hybrids are still enjoying popularity. Significant successes achieved in the field of breeding German breeders, of strings 19. century, especially Georg Arends, Later the focus shifted to England and the USA. Primrose carpet and later gave rise to a group of hybrids Primula × juliana From the cross cowslip and bezlodyžné hybrids formed a group known as the Primula × polyanthus.
Prvosenka bezlodyžná (Primula vulgaris, P. acaulis) – individual flowers grow on 5-10 cm long, hairy stems from the axils of the bracts. The flowers are yellow with indigenous, are also known subspecies with white flowers, red, blue and violet colors. It is an original European species and grows in rich moist soils on a lightly shaded areas, in sparse deciduous forests, shrubs and meadows.
Prvosenka vyšší (Primula elatior) – large flowers of the original species are pale yellow, with orange spots and grow on 10 when 30 cm tall stems has many garden forms. It is widespread throughout Europe through the Caucasus to Western Asia, grows in meadows and light forests in the lowlands to the alpine stage. It has many garden forms.
Prvosenka Jarni, primrose (Primula veris) – bright yellow flowers grow in umbels unilateral rose amid lush green ovate leaves. It is native to Europe and Asia, especially where it grows in wet meadows. Tolerates more sun, often grows wild in the grass.
Prvosenka kobercová (Primula juliae) – The individual flowers red to purple color grow on short stems from the axils of the bracts , producing low, dense and richly flowering carpet. Comes from the Caucasus, where it grows heavier in humus soils in shaded positions on wet rocks and mountain forests.
Native species and forms of culture are gradually pushed out by modern hybrids velkokvětými, which are available in a wide range of colors and go easy to propagate from seeds. Recently penetrate us an interesting two-tone newer types Primula, which can normally buy in a flower shop. less widespread, but are very popular half-full and particular forms plnokvěté, as well as varieties with striped flowers. So far, very little is known in our group of yellow-edged prvosenek (so. “gold-laced”) green and flowering type “viridis”.
The particularities, intended rather for gardeners-collector, types are “hose-in-hose” a “jack-in-the-green”. For the first color is clearly double crown and a flower grows equally colored “duplicate” – nejznámějším odrůdou tohoto typu je vyobrazená tmavě purpurová 'Wanda hose-in-hose'. To group types “jack-in-the-green” They include varieties, where colorful simple or full crown is flanked by a wreath bracts – hezkým příkladem je plnokvětá bíle kvetoucí odrůda 'Dawn Ansell' in the picture. Both of these types are in culture since 16. century.
Prvosenek demands are not large and growing is relatively simple. Well they thrive in well-drained, but not too dry garden soil, preferably damp enough, a good supply of humus. can withstand sun, but better suits them penumbra, therefore rather we are planted under trees or near bushes. After flowering, removing the dried flowers, during vegetation pay attention especially to enough water – stronger drying majority of species and varieties tolerate, then often languish or die out;. In autumn it is advisable to remove stubborn diseases and especially on the leaves.
Young leaves likes to eat slugs, making it ideal to take home a supply of pellets. Danger sometimes also represent birds, which – unknown why – They taste especially yellow-flowering varieties. Of the disease occurs mainly rust and mildew. Quite often even chlorosis – yellowing leaves.
Primulky is multiply both ways – vegetativně i generativně.
vegetative propagation It is appropriate in the case of varieties, where it comes to maintaining colors and flower size, plnokvětosti and other properties. Ideal if you have a garden plant, that you like and want to preserve and multiply. The most common is the division of older clumps every two to three years just after flowering in April or May, in drier areas may be more appropriate division in late summer to early autumn. Cut plant according to size 3 when 10 small pieces, each Oddelek should have at least a few rootlets. Prepared seedlings planted in pots, if larger, even direct introduction into the garden. Special attention deserve the multiplication of varieties plnokvěté, which they are more demanding and usually worse accretion. If you want to be sure, it is advisable to treat the cutting surface before planting charcoal or ashes should be.
Semenem breeds indigenous species and especially today, F1 hybrids. you can too gather Seeds of plants from the garden and try your luck – surely you'll get a surprise in terms of color, the size and color of flowers. Primrose is very easy and readily crosses, progeny digested, resulting brightly colored carpets. If you choose to collect your own seed, ensure that, that seed nevyklepal wind. The best time for sowing is from February to March at around 20 ° C, nepřikrýváme seeds or only gently stir in the substrate and, after germination migrate to cooler areas. Mature seeds have a harder testa, germinate quite slowly and unevenly, Therefore, it is recommended to treat it by exposure to lower temperatures. Young plants after a few weeks pierces into pots and maintained at lower temperatures and before planting the outdoor station gradually hardens.
Flowered primula today very often you get normally buy as a flower shop “pokojovky”. Seedlings purchased for a few bucks in a pot at home will last only briefly – higher temperatures in homes with central heating and do not meet them soon wither, often they turn yellow and falls,. if you want, to last longer bloom, select them cooler bright spot, need for a window or in a conservatory. to wither, nevyhazujte is – Most hybrids are zimovzdorných and definitely worth a try is planted beneath the trees in the garden or simply lay out even a flowerpot out. After the times recover, turn green and bloom again in spring.
The article was published on the website of the Association Czech perenářů courtesy magazine Zahrádkář.