Of the many dozens of species of perennial poppies grown in gardens today are undoubtedly the most flowered hybrids. In the terminology there is a certain inconsistency, because their creation involved several species. The two most important species, who participated in the creation of today's hybrids, they are Papaver orientale a P. bracteatum. Sometimes the literature meet well with data on another type přišlechtení – P. pseudo-Oriental.
P. Oriental – Papaver orientale – He has been described and introduced into cultures already in 1701. Originates from the Orient – It is native to the mountains of the Caucasus, Turkey and Iran. Large brick-red to orange flowers with a red spot on the basis of slices achieve diameter up to 15 cm. The plants have a stronger tendency to sprawl underground root projections.
From the same area was the beginning 19. century introduction of this species Papaver bracteatum – poppy listenatý. In comparison with the previous type is slightly lower, It has stronger stems and grows less, its growth is rather bunchy. Deep red flowers with black spots on the wafers are supported by some striking, up to several centimeters long supporting bracts – braktejemi.
Hybrid perennial garden poppies are grown today in a wide range of varieties under the collective name Papaver orientale-hybrids. Earlier 20 století anglický zahradník Amos Perry objevil mezi červenými semenáčky růžově kvetoucí rostlinu a po úspěšném namnožení ji pojmenoval 'Mrs. Perry', jeho první selekce s bílými květy pak dostala jméno 'Perry´s White'. In the half 20. century the focus of breeding large-flowered perennial poppies moved from England to continental Europe. The most important role played an since the beginning of the German breeders. First it was Karl Foerster and later followed him from breeders gardening Zeppelin – Now here comes the majority of the varieties grown today. Recently emerging quality hybrids also in other parts of the world.
Many new varieties are protected by patent, when their multiplication is therefore necessary to purchase a license. Mezi ně patří růžová 'Pink Ruffles' with třepenými plátky, neobvykle růžovofialový 'Papillon', z mnoha červeně kvetoucích odrůd například 'Scarlet O´Hara', 'Inferno', 'Matador', 'Carmen' and more.
Still, we hold a fairly high-quality varieties, which can multiply freely. They cover the entire color range, we find among them two color varieties, or varieties with slices on the outskirts třepenými. 'Graue Witwe' It has nearly white flowers, with a black spot at the base, z růžových a lososových je vynikající růžově kvetoucí nízká 'Kleine Tänzerin', z vyšších je oblíbený například velkokvětý 'Aslahan'. Lososový 'Prinz Eugen' It has sliced the edge trepet, zvláštní šedě růžovofialovou barvu má anglická odrůda 'Patty´s Plum'. Z červených a cihlových můžeme jmenovat pozdní jasně červený 'Spätzunder', tmavě červený 'Big Jim', nebo 'Türkenlouis' with slices at the edge of fraying. Less common are two-colored varieties, například 'Carnival' nebo 'Pinacle'. In addition to the color and shape of flowers they are good distinguishing feature of shape varieties of poppy buds.
Generally bear hybrid perennial poppies for undemanding garden plants. In our conditions are reliably zimovzdorné, They thrive in almost any garden soil, besides heavy and waterlogging. Well tolerated and stony soil also are greatly suchovzdorné. In the second half of summer plants and retract through periods of dormancy, therefore require watering restrictions. If that with respect to other surrounding plants goes, the ideal is not without watering flowerbeds. Poppies require full sun habitats, Their advantage is considerable resistance to diseases and pests.
The predominant mode of propagation in commercial horticulture, vegetative propagation by root cuttings (Until recently, it was used almost exclusively this way). The advantage of the proliferation of root cuttings, besides simplicity, high propagation coefficient and also, the multiplication performed outside the main propagating season.
Perennial poppies generally very good growth and even small fragments of roots are very quickly able to regenerate the entire plant. They are at least two years of nursery plants, which is usually planted in the spring and removed from the ground after being pulled late summer or early autumn next year. The roots go deep, to multiply excluded only from the top of the clump, lower roots extending to a depth should remain intact as possible (the mother plant shoots from them reliably and in two years they can be re-used for propagation). After removal of the soil, the roots are cut into 2 when 3 cm long pieces, which be sticking perpendicularly or obliquely into crates or directly into multiplet unfilled substrate. Maintaining the correct polarity cuttings is essential, Therefore, for better orientation recommends cut the upper part of the pulp transversely and obliquely lower. It then facilitates recessing into the substrate, which is appropriate to lighten sand. After cold winter in a cold greenhouse at constant humidity of the substrate pulp during the winter and spring roots grow (beware of excessive waterlogging, when they can cuttings to rot). Plantlets are hrnkují spring in pots of diameter 9 cm and in June are for sale.
Recently they succeeded on the market also relatively good quality seed varieties be multiplied, whose popularity is growing and is increasingly applied also in commercial horticulture. Ze směsí je zajímavá pestrobarevná směs 'Pizzicato' awarded medals Fleuroselectu, v čistých barvách patří ke spolehlivým odrůdám například ohnivě červená 'Brillant' nebo lososově růžová 'Princess Victoria Louise'.
Seje during February on the substrate surface without přisypávání. Seeds germinate quickly, preferably at about 20 ° C, and even moisture.
Perennial poppies are used in perennial beds, drier character. On Intensive care, regular irrigation and fertilization beds with perennial poppies fit. In these conditions, although abundant blooms, but they grow too exuberant and often therefore is vulnerable. They used especially in groups, but they can be discontinued as solitary. In plantations they combine well with other perennials suchomilnými, for example Stachys byzantina, Aster amellus, Stokesia laevis, Centranthus ruber, with druhy genus Gypsophila, Eryngium, Echinops, Artemisia, Geranium (G. dalmaticum, G. grandiflorum) and other. They stand out nicely in combination with hardy grasses, especially with species and varieties of the genus Festuca, or also with some flowering bulbs.
The article was published on the website of the Association Czech perenářů courtesy magazine Zahrádkář.