Perhaps no other garden plant in the past did not enjoy great popularity, than “floxy”. Rich panicles of flowers were vibrant colors along with daisies and lilies adorn every village gardens. Then the plants in our culture almost disappeared, that after years returned to our gardens with even greater fanfare.
Rod phlox, plamenka, They belong to the family jirnicovitých Polemoniaeae and about its 70 species is typical of North American flora (with the exception of one type, which grows in Siberia). Individual species are very varied in height, color of flowers, properties and use. Cushioned low-growing species, are used for rock gardens, High adorn flower beds. The most important horticultural species include plamenka latnatá (Phlox paniculata), We better known under the name zlidovělým “flox”. Other, less known, but significant species of higher clematis, they are Phlox maculata and hybrid phlox × arendsii.
It is not known exactly, when the first flames penetrated into Europe. The data in the literature vary widely, What is clear is, it was between 1700 a 1800. Breeding took place concurrently in America and Europe, hundreds of varieties bred breeders in Germany and England, Least successful was breeding in Russia. The number of varieties of tall garden phlox now almost impossible to estimate, there are hundreds. They differ mainly in addition to the height of the building panicles, color and size of flowers, the presence or absence of color or eyelet “stars”. According varieties of plants grow to a height 60 when 120 cm, bloom from late June to August. The basic kind in the hybridization was already mentioned Phlox paniculata, original eastern USA, where it grows in moist soils, especially in flood plains for rivers.
The high garden phlox is a classic záhonovým trvalkám, They can be combined with almost all plants of similar claims. Excellent are also to be cut – in weight depending on the variety lasts 5 when 8 days. blossom, especially in the evening, very pleasant smell and in addition attract honeybees, bumblebees and butterflies.
They require moist soil with enough, They thrive best in highland areas with higher humidity (dry suffer from powdery mildew). If they have enough water, They grow well in full sun, particularly in warmer areas, but it better suits a slight penumbra.
The biggest problem with growing clematis are diseases and pests. Of the fungal diseases poses a risk of mildew and animal pests are especially nematodes. Against mildew today can quite successfully fight conventional fungicides – if we intervene in time, able in most cases prevent more widespread. Nematode is however very resistant, almost indestructible adversary and is a major cause, why this popular plant in our gardens almost disappeared. The main manifestation of attack is particularly twisting of leaves and whole stems and thickening and deformation of the bottom of the stems. Plants are at first glance unhealthy, stunted, less blooming, shoots rozklesají, are fragile and easily breaks. For heavy infestation sensitive plant varieties die. Speeches attack can be different in different years – It depends primarily on the humidity conditions at the beginning of vegetation. If it is very dry spring, symptoms occur more intensely. PWN is really difficult and usually does not pay, because the plants can only save very hard. Although there are chemical products, which can reduce the occurrence of the PWN, but almost never be completely destroy nematode. Furthermore, the toxicity of those preparations is very high – They pose a risk to the environment and to humans. Therefore it is best to get rid of the infected plants, and the fight against nematode preventive methods and biological. For preventive methods, especially the selection of healthy material. When buying young plants need a good look – expressions on them, although usually less noticeable, but any sign of creep and deformation can be a symptom of infection. Furthermore, it is appropriate to avoid when planting surfaces rotate and in any case is not to plant sites for, where previously grown clematis plants – Indeed nematode in soil can survive for several years. Of the biological methods is an important selection of suitable varieties – some are more susceptible to PWN, other less – velice odolná je například bíle kvetoucí 'Fujiyama'. Occurrence of nematodes can also restrict planting marigolds in close proximity clematis – Indeed secrete substances, nematode that repel.
With the exception of breeding work with clematis reproduce vegetatively. Methods of multiplication are several, But with regard to the possible transfer of nematodes using some fairly risky. The simplest and most common among gardeners also is cutting plants, But that poses a significant risk of transmitting nematodes. If you opt for this method, the best time is from April to May, However, use only plants, which shows no signs of infestation. Very successful it is also cuttings – the most senior rooted cuttings with several pairs of leaves during propagation from late April to early June, in the same period can also be used pulp stem having at least two pairs of leaves (upper leaves zakrátí, lower pair of leaves were removed and the steak retracts about 1-2 cm into the substrate). During the summer, it is still possible multiplication of shoots growing in axils, but these spices slowly. Depending on the propagation material and the term propagation of cuttings take root over 3 when 6 weeks. All methods of cuttings from the aerial parts represent a certain possibility of transmitting nematodes, therefore in horticultural practice considering its eliminate most uses reproduction root cuttings (especially nematodes survive above ground). Another advantage is the large coverage (one mother plants get a huge number of young plants) and also of the timing of multiplication outside the growing season. When frost weather during December exempt older plants from the soil, roots Shrug, washed and cut into long cuttings 4-6 cm. Do substrate to be sticking slightly askew (check polarity!) and backfilled with others, about 1 cm layer of substrate. Over the winter we keep them in rooms with temperatures around 5O C, the first shoots appear in early spring. Young plants during all modes of reproduction requires sufficient irrigation.
At the nursing clematis are too demanding, Beyond the provision of adequate watering and protection from diseases and pests during vegetation require only a few hits. Suffice lat removing faded after flowering. Although there is no risk of seeding, dried flowers, however, operate in the furrows unsightly and furthermore the formation of seed plants unnecessarily exhausts.
The article was published on the website of the Association Czech perenářů courtesy magazine Zahrádkář.